The Russian military is not merely sensual, but a bitter defeat. Some appear not only make the country lose the majority of its territory, but even the country was questioned. Here’s a very grievous defeat of Russian history.
Mongol invasion (1237 – 1240)
At the beginning of the thirteenth century, the Mongols realized that Russia was split and could not resist the powerful and compact invasion of Asia’s forces. One by one, the principalities of the kingdom (a country ruled by a princely princed or princess) in mainland Russia fell under Mongol dominance marked by massive looting, destruction, and massacres of all the population. Over the next few centuries, the Russian princes were politically and economically dependent on the Mongol Empire, and it took decades to melt the devastated economy and culture.
Russia seeks to resist serious decadence in its development, which makes it far backward from European countries. The invasion completely dismantled the political map of the Russian state. Kiev, which the Mongols seized in 1240, never rediscovered its status as the most important city in Rus Kiev. The various Western Slavic princes, like Smolensk, Kursk, as well as areas now in modern Ukrainian and Belarus districts, fall into the sphere of influence of a strong Lithuanian state, which in the end absorbs that influence.
However, as long as the bombs of the times are created. These lands became a source of contention and argument for as many wars between Russia and the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania (a federal monarchy composed by the Polish Empire and Lithuanian Keharyapatihan in 1569 and survived until 1795). Even in the 20th century, some of these areas became the root of the clash between Poland and the Soviet Union.
The Livonia War (1558 – 1583)
Ivan IV, better known as the Terrible Ivan, started the war against the weak Livonia Confederacy to dominate the main port and strengthen the Moscow Basin on the Baltic coast. This is most important for a developing Russian country, as their access to the Baltic Sea is limited to a plot of largely untapped land on the coast of the Gulf of Finland.
The first period of battle is sweet to Ivan IV, and his troops successfully master the urgent parts of the Confucian Confederation of Livonia – today’s sophisticated Latvia and Estonia region. Meanwhile, other great powers are, of course, unhappy with the growth of its east neighbor’s forces. For years, Russia was at war with both the Swedish and Lithuanian Keharyapatihan who in 1569 united with Poland.
The widespread war continued for more than 20 years, and finished with a major defeat on the Russian side. The economy of the country was destroyed, and the population in the northwest district declined drastically. All the land that was originally picked up from Livonia was lost and the emergency was returned. Not only that, Keharyapatihan Moscow lost its territories in Finland and the majority of its coastal areas in the Gulf of Finland. Only a few small lands in the mouth of the River Neva remain Russia’s. However, the region can not provide strategic access to the oceans.
Thus, instead of the weak Livonian Confederation, Russia has a powerful new enemy on its western border: the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania and the Kingdom of Sweden. Russia needs years of years and abundant resources to tackle the problem in the future – around the Great Northern War (1700 – 1721).
The Russian-Turkish War (1710 – 1713)
Pyotr Agung successfully avenged Ivan IV’s defeat. He destroyed Sweden and grabbed his land that was going along the eastern Baltic district (Estonia, Livonia and Ingria) under the Nystad Treaty of 1721.
But in 1711, the war was far from over. The tsar was even in a life-threatening condition, which almost led to the destruction of his entire army. After Russia’s extraordinary victory at Poltava in 1709, the defeated King of Sweden Karl XII fled to the town of Bendery in Bessarabia, which was under the Ottoman Empire. The fierce negotiations between the Russian tsar and Sultan Ahmed III relate the fate of the Swedish king to a dead end. On the other hand, He wants to expel the Russians from the Azov fortress which Pyotr Agung captured in 1695 – 1696 in an attempt to open Russian access to the Black Sea through the Kerch Strait.
In 1710, the Ottoman Empire claimed a war against Russia, which led to the Campaign of the Russian Prussian River Pruth. In 1711, 38,000 Russians led by Pyotr Agung were blockaded by 190,000 Ottoman and Crimean soldiers in Bessarabia. In order to avoid destruction, Pyotr emerged to accept the requirements of the sultan who became a scourge for Russia, which was then relegated to the Pruth Agreement two years later.
Russia gave Azov to the Ottoman Empire, destroyed all fortresses on the Azov Sea coast, and thereby lost access to the Black Sea. In addition, for nearly 20 years Russia lost control of the Zaporizhia Cossack Army, which fell under Ottoman domination. However, the result of a very bad defeat is the destruction of Russia’s first navy – Flotilla Azov. Hundreds of large and small ships were destroyed, some sold, while the other fate was never known. As a result of this defeat, the Russian emergency began its foreign policy abilities from scratch.
The Crimean War (1853 – 1856)
On the one hand, the Crimean War is similar to the Livonia War: Russia successfully started a battle with one weak enemy, but was forced to resolve the conflict by suffering defeat at the hands of a coalition of great powers. Based on information from the Treaty of Paris (1856), Russia has not lost not a few territories, but lost the right to have a fleet on the Black Sea.
Thus, Russia also had to abandon its claim to patronize Christians in the Ottoman Empire, who threw the right to France. Russia also lost its influence in Moldavia, Wallachia, and Serbia. In general, the war was the most damaging to Russia’s international reputation. However, there is no more suffering in addition to the imperial financial system.
With the size of the war debt, the Russian emergency scored an unsecured credit note that resulted in a thorough depreciation of the ruble currency. Only in 1897, the government successfully stabilized the exchange rate by adopting the gold standard. Nevertheless, the Crimean War forced the government to introduce massive military and economic reforms, such as the abolition of the slavery system in 1861.
World War I (1914 – 1918)
World War I was a major disaster for the Russian Empire. The fall of 1.7 million victims of war was only the beginning of a much larger massacre. Despite the end of Russia’s completion of its involvement in the battle with the Brest-Litovsk Treaty on March 3, 1918, the Civil War created the country plunged into more devastating damage. As a result of his separation with the Central Bloc, Russia has no location in peace talks, despite its significant dominant victory, especially in the early stages of the war. In the end, Russia lost over 842 thousand square kilometers (15.4 percent of its pre-war total), which was home to 31.5 million citizens (23.3 percent of the prewar imperial population).
The collapse of the empire resulted in the emergence of new states. Poland rediscovered its independence, while Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, and Finland, for the first time in their history, gained the status of a sovereign state. Not only that, Romania was also a chance to grab Bessarabia. Even today, the geopolitical conditions of Eastern Europe are characterized by an uncomfortable and complicated relationship between the countries present on the ashes of the Russian Empire in 1918.