240 Years Ago United Colonies of America Was Renamed The United States

September 9, 1776 Continental Congress approved the new American name – “United States of America” ​​(not the name “United Colonies”, adopted by Congress on June 7, 1775).

In the 1770s, Britain’s conflict with its colonies on the east coast of the Atlantic took an open form. In the spring of 1776, most American colonies chose independence from the mother country. In this case, a commission was formed to prepare the Declaration of Independence, and in July 1776 was adopted at the Continental Congress, the Calend.ru website reported.

The declaration announced the establishment of 13 new sovereign states on the Atlantic coast of North America. Initially, this was independent, unmerged in federal union countries – New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania.

The Declaration of Independence uses the name “United States” for the first time. It is believed that this was stated by Thomas Paine, a public and political figure from the United States and Great Britain. This is this form and the shorter one – “Country” – used in the Continental Congress protocol.

«US» abbreviations were found in the newspaper of George Washington in 1791, and the abbreviation «U.S.A.» first appeared in 1795. But for two years after the proclamation of independence, the name “United States of America North America” ​​was officially used; The word “North” was removed from the title by the decision of the Continental Congress in 1778.

The Continental Congress, held in 1777 in Philadelphia, adopted a resolution that established the shape of the American flag, which was 13 red and white lines and 13 – the first number of united colonies. Furthermore, it was decided to permanently leave the number of bands unchanged, and to respect each new country, add one more star, now 50.

Despite the fact that the US as a sovereign power was formed recently, the American region has a long background, reports VistaNews.ru. Historians inform that the first indigenous people came to America from the Asian continent about 50 thousand years ago, at a time when instead of Bering Strait there was a land linking two continents. Archaeologists provide artifacts found, whose age is determined in 14 thousand years, which proves the existence of people there.

The existence of America became famous thanks to Christopher Columbus, who in 1492 traveled to the West Indies, and also in 1943 personally landed on the island of Puerto Rico. After great sailors, his followers — John Cabot and Juan Ponce de Leon — came to the territory of the modern United States. American colonial history began with European researchers.

At the beginning of its independence, the United States consisted of 13 countries formed from the British colonies. After the Declaration of Independence was adopted, states were forced to double their rights to sovereignty, after entering military clashes with the British Empire. In 1783, according to the British agreed to formally recognize the independence of the United States, but until 1815 he still helped allied Indian tribes who rejected the American army. As the War of Independence ended, the US fell under expansion from the west, which was supported by American convictions in the explicit design of God’s predestination of existence in America in their country, which occupied the region from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In 1912, the main US territory was formed with the formation of the last state of Arizona. At that time, Alaska and Hawaii were already part of the United States, although they officially entered state status in 1959.

The text of the US Constitution, approved in 1788, is based on the Declaration of Independence of the United States. According to the document, the Supreme Court is the highest authority that supports constitutional law in the United States. Later, many amendments were made to the main law. One of them is an item on the prohibition of slavery and the right to elect women representatives. Amendments to the abolition of slavery have become a painful process that affects the interests of most Americans. This provoked state disintegration and civil war in 1861-1865, after which there was a Reconstruction period, which lasted for years. However, until the middle of the last century, racial segregation dominated the United States, despite the slavery ban.

After the end of the civil war, America experienced an economic recovery, an increase in living standards and a period of progression. It ended with the beginning of the Great Depression in 1929. A new stage in formation in the United States from a social state was an action taken by the authorities supporting citizens who suffered during the economic downturn in the country. American health was also contributed by military orders from the authorities, caused by the outbreak of World War II, and after the cold war. This has turned the United States into a world superpower.

The History of Regulation US especially in Gambling

agen sbobet terpercaya

With the history of independence day of US and how hard it can be with the racial between Afrika and Native tribe of US, the government really look into it if discussing about regulation. So it can be as equitable as it can. It include how the government take gambling regulation seriously, US did not specifically say no to online gambling, but they regulated it so it can give advantage for many people.

With this regulation, many companies in US and outsider like Mexico, Europe and Asia are racing to be the number one online gambling, they try to become the number one of agen sbobet for local people. It’s interesting to see who will climb to the top. Because to attract player, those companies will give many bonus to member. That’s soothes me.

The Defeat of the History of Russia, Hidden Information You Never Know

The Russian military is not merely sensual, but a bitter defeat. Some appear not only make the country lose the majority of its territory, but even the country was questioned. Here’s a very grievous defeat of Russian history.

Mongol invasion (1237 – 1240)

At the beginning of the thirteenth century, the Mongols realized that Russia was split and could not resist the powerful and compact invasion of Asia’s forces. One by one, the principalities of the kingdom (a country ruled by a princely princed or princess) in mainland Russia fell under Mongol dominance marked by massive looting, destruction, and massacres of all the population. Over the next few centuries, the Russian princes were politically and economically dependent on the Mongol Empire, and it took decades to melt the devastated economy and culture.

Russia seeks to resist serious decadence in its development, which makes it far backward from European countries. The invasion completely dismantled the political map of the Russian state. Kiev, which the Mongols seized in 1240, never rediscovered its status as the most important city in Rus Kiev. The various Western Slavic princes, like Smolensk, Kursk, as well as areas now in modern Ukrainian and Belarus districts, fall into the sphere of influence of a strong Lithuanian state, which in the end absorbs that influence.

However, as long as the bombs of the times are created. These lands became a source of contention and argument for as many wars between Russia and the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania (a federal monarchy composed by the Polish Empire and Lithuanian Keharyapatihan in 1569 and survived until 1795). Even in the 20th century, some of these areas became the root of the clash between Poland and the Soviet Union.

 

The Livonia War (1558 – 1583)


Ivan IV, better known as the Terrible Ivan, started the war against the weak Livonia Confederacy to dominate the main port and strengthen the Moscow Basin on the Baltic coast. This is most important for a developing Russian country, as their access to the Baltic Sea is limited to a plot of largely untapped land on the coast of the Gulf of Finland.

The first period of battle is sweet to Ivan IV, and his troops successfully master the urgent parts of the Confucian Confederation of Livonia – today’s sophisticated Latvia and Estonia region. Meanwhile, other great powers are, of course, unhappy with the growth of its east neighbor’s forces. For years, Russia was at war with both the Swedish and Lithuanian Keharyapatihan who in 1569 united with Poland.

The widespread war continued for more than 20 years, and finished with a major defeat on the Russian side. The economy of the country was destroyed, and the population in the northwest district declined drastically. All the land that was originally picked up from Livonia was lost and the emergency was returned. Not only that, Keharyapatihan Moscow lost its territories in Finland and the majority of its coastal areas in the Gulf of Finland. Only a few small lands in the mouth of the River Neva remain Russia’s. However, the region can not provide strategic access to the oceans.

Thus, instead of the weak Livonian Confederation, Russia has a powerful new enemy on its western border: the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania and the Kingdom of Sweden. Russia needs years of years and abundant resources to tackle the problem in the future – around the Great Northern War (1700 – 1721).

 

The Russian-Turkish War (1710 – 1713)

Pyotr Agung successfully avenged Ivan IV’s defeat. He destroyed Sweden and grabbed his land that was going along the eastern Baltic district (Estonia, Livonia and Ingria) under the Nystad Treaty of 1721.

But in 1711, the war was far from over. The tsar was even in a life-threatening condition, which almost led to the destruction of his entire army. After Russia’s extraordinary victory at Poltava in 1709, the defeated King of Sweden Karl XII fled to the town of Bendery in Bessarabia, which was under the Ottoman Empire. The fierce negotiations between the Russian tsar and Sultan Ahmed III relate the fate of the Swedish king to a dead end. On the other hand, He wants to expel the Russians from the Azov fortress which Pyotr Agung captured in 1695 – 1696 in an attempt to open Russian access to the Black Sea through the Kerch Strait.

In 1710, the Ottoman Empire claimed a war against Russia, which led to the Campaign of the Russian Prussian River Pruth. In 1711, 38,000 Russians led by Pyotr Agung were blockaded by 190,000 Ottoman and Crimean soldiers in Bessarabia. In order to avoid destruction, Pyotr emerged to accept the requirements of the sultan who became a scourge for Russia, which was then relegated to the Pruth Agreement two years later.

Russia gave Azov to the Ottoman Empire, destroyed all fortresses on the Azov Sea coast, and thereby lost access to the Black Sea. In addition, for nearly 20 years Russia lost control of the Zaporizhia Cossack Army, which fell under Ottoman domination. However, the result of a very bad defeat is the destruction of Russia’s first navy – Flotilla Azov. Hundreds of large and small ships were destroyed, some sold, while the other fate was never known. As a result of this defeat, the Russian emergency began its foreign policy abilities from scratch.

 

The Crimean War (1853 – 1856)


On the one hand, the Crimean War is similar to the Livonia War: Russia successfully started a battle with one weak enemy, but was forced to resolve the conflict by suffering defeat at the hands of a coalition of great powers. Based on information from the Treaty of Paris (1856), Russia has not lost not a few territories, but lost the right to have a fleet on the Black Sea.

Thus, Russia also had to abandon its claim to patronize Christians in the Ottoman Empire, who threw the right to France. Russia also lost its influence in Moldavia, Wallachia, and Serbia. In general, the war was the most damaging to Russia’s international reputation. However, there is no more suffering in addition to the imperial financial system.

With the size of the war debt, the Russian emergency scored an unsecured credit note that resulted in a thorough depreciation of the ruble currency. Only in 1897, the government successfully stabilized the exchange rate by adopting the gold standard. Nevertheless, the Crimean War forced the government to introduce massive military and economic reforms, such as the abolition of the slavery system in 1861.

 

World War I (1914 – 1918)

World War I was a major disaster for the Russian Empire. The fall of 1.7 million victims of war was only the beginning of a much larger massacre. Despite the end of Russia’s completion of its involvement in the battle with the Brest-Litovsk Treaty on March 3, 1918, the Civil War created the country plunged into more devastating damage. As a result of his separation with the Central Bloc, Russia has no location in peace talks, despite its significant dominant victory, especially in the early stages of the war. In the end, Russia lost over 842 thousand square kilometers (15.4 percent of its pre-war total), which was home to 31.5 million citizens (23.3 percent of the prewar imperial population).

The collapse of the empire resulted in the emergence of new states. Poland rediscovered its independence, while Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, and Finland, for the first time in their history, gained the status of a sovereign state. Not only that, Romania was also a chance to grab Bessarabia. Even today, the geopolitical conditions of Eastern Europe are characterized by an uncomfortable and complicated relationship between the countries present on the ashes of the Russian Empire in 1918.

American Civil War

American Civil War and Now 150 Years After

The American Civil War was over 150 years ago, killing 620,000 people on both sides. But the deep wounds caused by the war because of the problem of slavery seem to still leave traces up to now.

The beginning of this month, a demonstration launched by a group of white supremacists led to the demolition of statues and monuments commemorating Civilian figures who lost the war that took place from 1861 to 1865

Demonstrations in the city of Charlottesville, Virginia killed three people and wounded 19 others and caused widespread protests aimed at President Donald Trump for giving inappropriate comments felt in response to the incident.

James Grossman, executive director of the American Historical Association, said statues and monuments honoring defeated rebel figures were only established between 1900 and 1920.

“But the number is not less new in the construction in the 1950s and 1960s. At that time also not a few names of schools, street names and parks are replaced with the names of figures of 11 states of the American element who claimed to be separated from the United States.

The first stage between 1900 and 1920, the establishment of the statues and monuments was aimed at reinforcing the rights of the white population that were perceived to be higher than the rights of the black population.

“The statues and monuments seem to write” this is a white-owned area, and the white race is a better race than the black race. ”

James Grossman said in an interview with c-span radio and television stations, the next stage, between 1950 and 1960, statues and monuments were founded against the practice of civil rights equality for all Americans.

General Robert E. Lee
A statue of the Confederate Leader, General Robert E. Lee diverted from the University of Texas campus in the city of Austin, Monday (21/8). The Rector of the University of Texas ordered the removal of statues of Confederate leaders from the campus environment because he thought the affair was a symbol of modern white “supremacy and Neo-Nazi”.

“In the 1950s, not a few schools were renamed by the names of rebel figures, even after the government abolished school segregation for white and black citizens. So the whole thing is a political act, as if writing that the struggle is still not finished. ”

Is there a polemic between the central government and the state government regarding the establishment of the statues and memorials of the Confederate government?

“There is no polemic at all. At first not a bit of the construction of the statue was financed by a collection of descendants of all the rebels called “The United Daughters of the Confederacy”. The idea is to indicate that the united white gathering, especially the southern part of America, belongs to the white population. ”

Even in the US Congress building there was a room where 11 statues of leaders and rebel figures in the Civil War were displayed.

Ten American military bases scattered across countries still use the names of the rebel generals, such as Camp Beauregard, Fort Benning, Fort Bragg and Fort Hood. The Pentagon wrote that it would not change the names

The Battle of Antietam

One of the most deadly battlesMcClellan decided to begin hostilities on September 17.At that time, Lee’s forces, estimated to have 45,000 combatants but limited to 30,000 men at the beginning of the engagement, were arranged in an arc around Sharpsburg, on a front of about 5 kilometers. The right and center were held by the reinforced Longstreet Corps of the DH Hill division; the left was held by Jackson’s reinforced body of Stuart’s cavalry.In the northern camp, McClellan had 60,000 men and expected 12,000 reinforcement in the morning. With other more distant troops, he could hope to have a maximum of 87,000 soldiers, a superiority of two against one.

It also had a strong artillery, firepower incomparably more powerful than that of the Southerners.On the northern right wing, two army corps, those of Generals Hooker and Mansfield, had managed to cross Antietam Creek and threatened the southern left. The center and the left northerner were east of Antietam Creek and consisted of General Sumner’s body (waiting to be reinforced by Franklin’s) and, on the left facing a bridge over the brook, to that of General Bunrside. McClellan had been able to afford the luxury of keeping an entire body, that of General Porter, in reserve. McClellan’s plan was to launch a major attack on the southern left and a diversion attack on the right. By the time Lee’s forces were quite worn out, he would have triggered the decisive attack in the center, involving all the reserves.

The first operations, The Southern advance was rapid, and on September 7, 1862, General Lee’s North Virginia Army reached the principal city of Frederick. There, Lee made a proclamation inviting the state to join the Confederation but, in the conquered territories, the reception was freezing. At the same time, Lee turned his attention to the nearby Harpers Ferry, a major arms production center, which was held by a small contingent of northerners capable of threatening his rear in his later progress.

Once again, Lee took the risk of dividing his army of 45,000 men and entrusted part of it to General Jackson with instructions to seize Harpers Ferry. He split his army again and entrusted part of it to General Longstreet, who was tasked with seizing the South Mountain passes to the north-west. In the northern camp, the cautious but brilliant organizer McClellan had been reinstated at the head of the armies of the Eastern treasure. McClellan put an end to the existence of Pope’s Army of Virginia and integrated his forces into his Potomac army, with 90,000 combatants.

Reassured by his numerical superiority, McClellan went on the counterattack as early as September 8th.
Four days later, small numbers of northerners came into contact with small southern contingents in the Frederick area. Skirmishes arose but, crucially, a northerner found in an abandoned tent a copy of Lee’s plan describing the subdivisions of his army and the march from Jackson to Harpers Ferry. McClellan exulted and, for the first time, forgot all his caution. He decided to send forces to South Mountain, a relief column at Harpers Ferry, and launch the rest of his army on Lee’s main force, now weak.

“Hunt the natural, it comes back at a gallop,” they say. When the first clashes began in the South Mountain area, McClellan was cautious again and estimated that Longstreet’s southern forces were twice as large as they actually were. A decisive northern assault would no doubt have led to the destruction of Longstreet, but McClellan remained silent and the southern general, recalled to Lee now aware of a massive northern presence, was able to clear himself easily.

All southern forces converged on the locality of Sharpsburg, ten kilometers to the west, and stood at the shelter of the small stream of Antietam Creek. Jackson, who had just seized Harpers Ferry, taking 12,000 northern prisoners and large quantities of weapons (13,000 rifles, 73 pieces of artillery, …), returned forced to Sharpsburg where Lee was waiting the massive northern assault by having only half of his army. Jackson, however, was forced to leave Harpers Ferry with the division of General Ambose Powell Hill, who was charged with settling the city’s formalities for surrender. Everyone was unaware then that this small troop would play a crucial role in the major battle ahead.Fortunately for Lee, McClellan maneuvered with the utmost caution and slowness. The days of September 15 and 16 saw the northern army observe the positions of Lee but limited to some artillery fire as a single offensive action. So we will celebrate 156 years for that event, along with the biggest event this year as some of judi online piala dunia also celebrate World Cup 2018 in Russia.

>In September 1862, following the second Bull Run battle , the southern authorities changed their strategy. Abandoning the idea of ​​fighting for its own defense, the Confederation decided to carry the war into northern territory and, more specifically, into the border state of Maryland.

This invasion could have several advantages :

  • Maryland, whose population was culturally close to that of the southern states, could perhaps rally to Confederation
  • seeing itself invaded, the North, whose morale was at its lowest, might be forced to ask for peace
  • in the case of an important confederate victory in northern territory, one could assume that some European powers would recognize the Southern cause as legitimate
  • practically, Confederate stewardship, inefficient, could be provided on a rich territory, until then spared by the destruction.

The Southern army began the invasion of the North on September 5, 1862, crossing the Potomac at Leechburg.

Biography of Ambrose Powell Hill

Ambrose Powell Hill was a US soldier. Officer of the US Army became a lieutenant-general in the Federal Army during the Civil War. He excelled in command of a division in the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, notably the seven day bouts and at Antietam, where his men had a crucial role to prevent the defeat south; is promoted, on the eve of the Battle of Gettysburg, the commander of the new III Corps not fully confirmed, in this situation, the quality on display before, in part because of poor health also.

biography

From West Point Born in Culpeper, Virginia, he arrived in 1847 and fought in the Mexican War. He also worked for the post of superintendent of the Coast Guard and fought in the Third Seminole War.

In March 1861 he resigned from the US Army and joined the Confederation as Colonel of the 13th Infantry of Virginia.

He was promoted to Brigadier General in February 1862. After fighting in Williamsburg in May, he was given command of a division and was promoted to Major General May 26, 1862.

With his troops began the campaign with the Seven Days Battle of Mechanics.

Hill and his unit, known as Light Division Hill, also launched attacks on Gaines’ Mill and Frayser Farm.Joining those of Major General “Stonewall” Jackson, Hill’s troops became the reputation, one of the most effective combat units. They participated in the battles of Cedar Mountain, Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.

After the death of “Stonewall” Jackson General Robert E. Lee reorganized the federal army and promoted Lieutenant General Hill on May 24, 1863. He was placed in command of the Third Army Corps, but served indiscriminately. Although participating in the Battle of Gettysburg, he had an active role. He also assumed at the Battle of Bristoe Railway Station, but his attack caused 1300 casualties.

After fighting in the wilderness she became ill and missed the fight of Spotsylvania. Again ill, real or imaginary, he missed the siege of Petersburg and his battles.

Two soldiers of the Union VI Corps them on the same day from which he was shot back from sick leave.He died the same day, April 2, 1865, and was buried in Richmond, Virginia.

Civil War AP Hill – Third Corps:

A colorful character, Hill usually wore a red flannel shirt in combat that became known as his “battle jersey”. Participating in the battle of Fredericksburg on December 13, Hill behaves badly and his men need reinforcements to prevent a collapse. With the renewal of the campaign in May 1863, Hill participated in Jackson’s brilliant flank march and his May 2 attack at the Battle of Chancellorsville.

When Jackson was wounded, Hill took back the body before being wounded in the legs and forced to hand over the commander to Major General JEB Stuart.

With Jackson’s death on May 10, Lee began reorganizing the Northern Virginia Army. In doing so, he promoted Hill to the lieutenant-general on May 24 and gave him command of the newly formed third corps. In the wake of the victory, Lee walked north to Pennsylvania. On July 1, Hill’s men opened the Battle of Gettysburg when they clashed with the cavalry of Brigadier General John Buford. Successful in repelling Union forces in concert with Lieutenant-General Richard Ewell’s corps, Hill’s men suffered heavy casualties.

AP Hill Campaign – Overland:

Largely inactive on July 2, Hill’s corps contributed to two-thirds of the troops involved in Pickett’s unfortunate charge the next day. Retired in Virginia, Hill may have endured his worst day of command on Oct. 14, when he was defeated at the Battle of Bristoe Station. In May 1864, Lieutenant Ulysses S. Grant began his Overland campaign against Lee. During the battle of the desert, Hill undergoes heavy assaults of the Union on May 5th. The next day the Union troops renewed their attack and nearly broke Hill’s lines when Longstreet arrived with reinforcements.

As the fighting moved south to Spotsylvania Court House, Hill was forced to give up command because of poor health. Although traveling with the army, he played no part in the battle. Returning to action, he misbehaves in North Anna (May 23-26) and Cold Harbor (May 31-June 12).

After the Confederate victory at Cold Harbor, Grant moved to cross the James River and capture Petersburg. Defeated by the Confederate forces, he began the siege of Petersburg.

Having settled on the siege lines of Petersburg, Hill’s commandment returned the Union troops to the Battle of the Crater and hired Grant’s men several times to push the troops south and west to cut the rail links of the city. Although commanding at Globe Tavern (August 18-21), Second Ream Station (August 25) and Peebles Farm (September 30-October 2), his health began to deteriorate. -28). As armies move into winter quarters in November, Hill continues to fight his health.

On April 1, 1865, Union troops under the command of Major-General Philip Sheridan won the key Battle of Five Forks west of Petersburg. The next day, Grant ordered a massive offensive against Lee’s overflowing lines in front of the city. Major General Horatio Wright’s Sixth Corps overwhelmed Hill’s troops. Straddling the front, Hill met with Union troops and was shot in the chest by Corporal John W. Mauck of the 138th Pennsylvania Infantry. Originally buried in Chesterfield, Virginia, his body was exhumed in 1867 and moved to the Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond.

American Civil War: Lieutenant General Ambrose Powell Hill

Born on November 29, 1825 in his family plantation near Culpeper, Virginia, Ambrose Powell Hill was the son of Thomas and Frances Hill. Locally educated, Hill chose to pursue a military career and received a rendezvous at West Point in 1842. Upon arriving at the academy, he became a close friend with his roommate, George B. McClellan. An average student, Hill’s studies were interrupted in 1844 after a night of youth indiscretions in New York City.

Gonorrhea contracting, he was admitted to the academy hospital, but failed to improve dramatically.

Returned home to recover, he would be tormented by the effects of illness for the rest of his life. Due to his health problems, he was retained for a year at West Point and did not graduate with his classmates in 1846, which included prominent figures such as Thomas Jackson, George Pickett, John Gibbon, and Jesse Reno. Leaving the class of 1847, he soon became friends with Ambrose Burnside and Henry Heth. Graduated on June 19, 1847, Hill ranked 15th in a class of 38. He was commissioned second lieutenant and was ordered to join the 1st American Artillery engaged in the Mexican-American War.

AP Hill – Mexico and Antebellum Years:

Arriving in Mexico, Hill saw little action since most of the fighting had ended. Back north, he was posted to Fort McHenry in 1848. The following year he was posted to Florida to fight the Seminoles.

Hill spent the majority of the next six years in Florida with a brief interlude in Texas. An unhealthy climate, he contracted yellow fever in 1855. Surviving, he received a transfer to Washington, DC to work with the US Coast Survey. There, he married Kitty Morgan McClung in 1859. This marriage made him a brother-in-law of John Hunt Morgan.

AP Hill – The Civil War Begins:

On March 1, with the imminent civil war, Hill resigned from his position in the US Army. When Virginia left the Union the following month, Hill was given command of the 13th Virginia Infantry with the rank of Colonel. Assigned to the army of Brigadier General Joseph Johnston of Shenandoah, the regiment fought well in the first battle of Bull Run in July. After serving in Romney’s campaign, Hill was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General on February 26, 1862, and commanded the brigade previously owned by Major-General James Longstreet.

AP Hill – The Light Division:

Serving valiantly during the Battle of Williamsburg and the Peninsula Campaign in the spring of 1862, he was promoted to major on May 26. Commander of the Light Division in Longstreet Wing of General Robert E. Lee’s Army, Hill saw an important action against him. the friend McClellan’s army during the seven-day battle in June / July. Falling with Longstreet, Hill and his division were transferred to serve under his former classmate Jackson. Hill quickly became one of Jackson’s most trusted commanders and fought well at Cedar Mountain (Aug. 9) and played a key role at Second Manassas (August 28-30).