The Battle of Antietam

One of the most deadly battlesMcClellan decided to begin hostilities on September 17.At that time, Lee’s forces, estimated to have 45,000 combatants but limited to 30,000 men at the beginning of the engagement, were arranged in an arc around Sharpsburg, on a front of about 5 kilometers. The right and center were held by the reinforced Longstreet Corps of the DH Hill division; the left was held by Jackson’s reinforced body of Stuart’s cavalry.In the northern camp, McClellan had 60,000 men and expected 12,000 reinforcement in the morning. With other more distant troops, he could hope to have a maximum of 87,000 soldiers, a superiority of two against one.

It also had a strong artillery, firepower incomparably more powerful than that of the Southerners.On the northern right wing, two army corps, those of Generals Hooker and Mansfield, had managed to cross Antietam Creek and threatened the southern left. The center and the left northerner were east of Antietam Creek and consisted of General Sumner’s body (waiting to be reinforced by Franklin’s) and, on the left facing a bridge over the brook, to that of General Bunrside. McClellan had been able to afford the luxury of keeping an entire body, that of General Porter, in reserve. McClellan’s plan was to launch a major attack on the southern left and a diversion attack on the right. By the time Lee’s forces were quite worn out, he would have triggered the decisive attack in the center, involving all the reserves.

The first operations, The Southern advance was rapid, and on September 7, 1862, General Lee’s North Virginia Army reached the principal city of Frederick. There, Lee made a proclamation inviting the state to join the Confederation but, in the conquered territories, the reception was freezing. At the same time, Lee turned his attention to the nearby Harpers Ferry, a major arms production center, which was held by a small contingent of northerners capable of threatening his rear in his later progress.

Once again, Lee took the risk of dividing his army of 45,000 men and entrusted part of it to General Jackson with instructions to seize Harpers Ferry. He split his army again and entrusted part of it to General Longstreet, who was tasked with seizing the South Mountain passes to the north-west. In the northern camp, the cautious but brilliant organizer McClellan had been reinstated at the head of the armies of the Eastern treasure. McClellan put an end to the existence of Pope’s Army of Virginia and integrated his forces into his Potomac army, with 90,000 combatants.

Reassured by his numerical superiority, McClellan went on the counterattack as early as September 8th.
Four days later, small numbers of northerners came into contact with small southern contingents in the Frederick area. Skirmishes arose but, crucially, a northerner found in an abandoned tent a copy of Lee’s plan describing the subdivisions of his army and the march from Jackson to Harpers Ferry. McClellan exulted and, for the first time, forgot all his caution. He decided to send forces to South Mountain, a relief column at Harpers Ferry, and launch the rest of his army on Lee’s main force, now weak.

“Hunt the natural, it comes back at a gallop,” they say. When the first clashes began in the South Mountain area, McClellan was cautious again and estimated that Longstreet’s southern forces were twice as large as they actually were. A decisive northern assault would no doubt have led to the destruction of Longstreet, but McClellan remained silent and the southern general, recalled to Lee now aware of a massive northern presence, was able to clear himself easily.

All southern forces converged on the locality of Sharpsburg, ten kilometers to the west, and stood at the shelter of the small stream of Antietam Creek. Jackson, who had just seized Harpers Ferry, taking 12,000 northern prisoners and large quantities of weapons (13,000 rifles, 73 pieces of artillery, …), returned forced to Sharpsburg where Lee was waiting the massive northern assault by having only half of his army. Jackson, however, was forced to leave Harpers Ferry with the division of General Ambose Powell Hill, who was charged with settling the city’s formalities for surrender. Everyone was unaware then that this small troop would play a crucial role in the major battle ahead.Fortunately for Lee, McClellan maneuvered with the utmost caution and slowness. The days of September 15 and 16 saw the northern army observe the positions of Lee but limited to some artillery fire as a single offensive action. So we will celebrate 156 years for that event, along with the biggest event this year as some of judi online piala dunia also celebrate World Cup 2018 in Russia.

>In September 1862, following the second Bull Run battle , the southern authorities changed their strategy. Abandoning the idea of ​​fighting for its own defense, the Confederation decided to carry the war into northern territory and, more specifically, into the border state of Maryland.

This invasion could have several advantages :

  • Maryland, whose population was culturally close to that of the southern states, could perhaps rally to Confederation
  • seeing itself invaded, the North, whose morale was at its lowest, might be forced to ask for peace
  • in the case of an important confederate victory in northern territory, one could assume that some European powers would recognize the Southern cause as legitimate
  • practically, Confederate stewardship, inefficient, could be provided on a rich territory, until then spared by the destruction.

The Southern army began the invasion of the North on September 5, 1862, crossing the Potomac at Leechburg.

Biography of Ambrose Powell Hill

Ambrose Powell Hill was a US soldier. Officer of the US Army became a lieutenant-general in the Federal Army during the Civil War. He excelled in command of a division in the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, notably the seven day bouts and at Antietam, where his men had a crucial role to prevent the defeat south; is promoted, on the eve of the Battle of Gettysburg, the commander of the new III Corps not fully confirmed, in this situation, the quality on display before, in part because of poor health also.

biography

From West Point Born in Culpeper, Virginia, he arrived in 1847 and fought in the Mexican War. He also worked for the post of superintendent of the Coast Guard and fought in the Third Seminole War.

In March 1861 he resigned from the US Army and joined the Confederation as Colonel of the 13th Infantry of Virginia.

He was promoted to Brigadier General in February 1862. After fighting in Williamsburg in May, he was given command of a division and was promoted to Major General May 26, 1862.

With his troops began the campaign with the Seven Days Battle of Mechanics.

Hill and his unit, known as Light Division Hill, also launched attacks on Gaines’ Mill and Frayser Farm.Joining those of Major General “Stonewall” Jackson, Hill’s troops became the reputation, one of the most effective combat units. They participated in the battles of Cedar Mountain, Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.

After the death of “Stonewall” Jackson General Robert E. Lee reorganized the federal army and promoted Lieutenant General Hill on May 24, 1863. He was placed in command of the Third Army Corps, but served indiscriminately. Although participating in the Battle of Gettysburg, he had an active role. He also assumed at the Battle of Bristoe Railway Station, but his attack caused 1300 casualties.

After fighting in the wilderness she became ill and missed the fight of Spotsylvania. Again ill, real or imaginary, he missed the siege of Petersburg and his battles.

Two soldiers of the Union VI Corps them on the same day from which he was shot back from sick leave.He died the same day, April 2, 1865, and was buried in Richmond, Virginia.

Civil War AP Hill – Third Corps:

A colorful character, Hill usually wore a red flannel shirt in combat that became known as his “battle jersey”. Participating in the battle of Fredericksburg on December 13, Hill behaves badly and his men need reinforcements to prevent a collapse. With the renewal of the campaign in May 1863, Hill participated in Jackson’s brilliant flank march and his May 2 attack at the Battle of Chancellorsville.

When Jackson was wounded, Hill took back the body before being wounded in the legs and forced to hand over the commander to Major General JEB Stuart.

With Jackson’s death on May 10, Lee began reorganizing the Northern Virginia Army. In doing so, he promoted Hill to the lieutenant-general on May 24 and gave him command of the newly formed third corps. In the wake of the victory, Lee walked north to Pennsylvania. On July 1, Hill’s men opened the Battle of Gettysburg when they clashed with the cavalry of Brigadier General John Buford. Successful in repelling Union forces in concert with Lieutenant-General Richard Ewell’s corps, Hill’s men suffered heavy casualties.

AP Hill Campaign – Overland:

Largely inactive on July 2, Hill’s corps contributed to two-thirds of the troops involved in Pickett’s unfortunate charge the next day. Retired in Virginia, Hill may have endured his worst day of command on Oct. 14, when he was defeated at the Battle of Bristoe Station. In May 1864, Lieutenant Ulysses S. Grant began his Overland campaign against Lee. During the battle of the desert, Hill undergoes heavy assaults of the Union on May 5th. The next day the Union troops renewed their attack and nearly broke Hill’s lines when Longstreet arrived with reinforcements.

As the fighting moved south to Spotsylvania Court House, Hill was forced to give up command because of poor health. Although traveling with the army, he played no part in the battle. Returning to action, he misbehaves in North Anna (May 23-26) and Cold Harbor (May 31-June 12).

After the Confederate victory at Cold Harbor, Grant moved to cross the James River and capture Petersburg. Defeated by the Confederate forces, he began the siege of Petersburg.

Having settled on the siege lines of Petersburg, Hill’s commandment returned the Union troops to the Battle of the Crater and hired Grant’s men several times to push the troops south and west to cut the rail links of the city. Although commanding at Globe Tavern (August 18-21), Second Ream Station (August 25) and Peebles Farm (September 30-October 2), his health began to deteriorate. -28). As armies move into winter quarters in November, Hill continues to fight his health.

On April 1, 1865, Union troops under the command of Major-General Philip Sheridan won the key Battle of Five Forks west of Petersburg. The next day, Grant ordered a massive offensive against Lee’s overflowing lines in front of the city. Major General Horatio Wright’s Sixth Corps overwhelmed Hill’s troops. Straddling the front, Hill met with Union troops and was shot in the chest by Corporal John W. Mauck of the 138th Pennsylvania Infantry. Originally buried in Chesterfield, Virginia, his body was exhumed in 1867 and moved to the Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond.

American Civil War: Lieutenant General Ambrose Powell Hill

Born on November 29, 1825 in his family plantation near Culpeper, Virginia, Ambrose Powell Hill was the son of Thomas and Frances Hill. Locally educated, Hill chose to pursue a military career and received a rendezvous at West Point in 1842. Upon arriving at the academy, he became a close friend with his roommate, George B. McClellan. An average student, Hill’s studies were interrupted in 1844 after a night of youth indiscretions in New York City.

Gonorrhea contracting, he was admitted to the academy hospital, but failed to improve dramatically.

Returned home to recover, he would be tormented by the effects of illness for the rest of his life. Due to his health problems, he was retained for a year at West Point and did not graduate with his classmates in 1846, which included prominent figures such as Thomas Jackson, George Pickett, John Gibbon, and Jesse Reno. Leaving the class of 1847, he soon became friends with Ambrose Burnside and Henry Heth. Graduated on June 19, 1847, Hill ranked 15th in a class of 38. He was commissioned second lieutenant and was ordered to join the 1st American Artillery engaged in the Mexican-American War.

AP Hill – Mexico and Antebellum Years:

Arriving in Mexico, Hill saw little action since most of the fighting had ended. Back north, he was posted to Fort McHenry in 1848. The following year he was posted to Florida to fight the Seminoles.

Hill spent the majority of the next six years in Florida with a brief interlude in Texas. An unhealthy climate, he contracted yellow fever in 1855. Surviving, he received a transfer to Washington, DC to work with the US Coast Survey. There, he married Kitty Morgan McClung in 1859. This marriage made him a brother-in-law of John Hunt Morgan.

AP Hill – The Civil War Begins:

On March 1, with the imminent civil war, Hill resigned from his position in the US Army. When Virginia left the Union the following month, Hill was given command of the 13th Virginia Infantry with the rank of Colonel. Assigned to the army of Brigadier General Joseph Johnston of Shenandoah, the regiment fought well in the first battle of Bull Run in July. After serving in Romney’s campaign, Hill was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General on February 26, 1862, and commanded the brigade previously owned by Major-General James Longstreet.

AP Hill – The Light Division:

Serving valiantly during the Battle of Williamsburg and the Peninsula Campaign in the spring of 1862, he was promoted to major on May 26. Commander of the Light Division in Longstreet Wing of General Robert E. Lee’s Army, Hill saw an important action against him. the friend McClellan’s army during the seven-day battle in June / July. Falling with Longstreet, Hill and his division were transferred to serve under his former classmate Jackson. Hill quickly became one of Jackson’s most trusted commanders and fought well at Cedar Mountain (Aug. 9) and played a key role at Second Manassas (August 28-30).